Medical Engineering & Physics

Accuracy of the fully integrated Insole3’s estimates of spatiotemporal parameters during walking

Abhiroop Ganguly, Bjorn A. Olmanson, Christopher B. Knowlton, Markus A. Wimmer, ChristopherFerrigno

Rush University Medical Center, Chicago


gait analysis, pressure insole, spatiotemporal variables, validation, wearables


This study investigated the accuracy of the Insole3 wireless shoe device in estimating several clinically useful spatiotemporal parameters (STPs). Eleven subjects walked at slow (0.8–1.0 m/s) and moderate-paced (1.2–1.4 m/s) speeds. Data were simultaneously recorded using the Insole3 and an industry-standard, three-dimensional motion capture (MOCAP) system. An error analysis compared the resulting STP data from the two systems. The mean bias error (MBE) was generally lower for temporal variables, and somewhat higher, but acceptable, for spatial variables. The MBE for temporally-related cadence and cycle time were the lowest (less than ±0.45%), with 100% (110/110) of slow-paced walking trial values and 99.1% (109/110) of moderate-paced walking trial values within 5% of the MOCAP estimates. The MBE was highest for speed (3.23–4.91%) and stride length (3.68–4.63%), with between 52.7 and 69.1% of trial values falling within the 5% error range. Stance time and swing time ranged between -0.98 and 4.38% error for both walking conditions. The results of this study suggest that the Insole3 is a potential alternative to MOCAP for estimating several STPs, namely cadence, stance time, and cycle time, particularly for use outside of the laboratory setting.

Moticon's Summary

In this study the authors investigated the accuracy of Moticon's Insole3 sensor insoles in estimating spatiotemporal parameters. For testing eleven participants were instructed to perform walking test at slow and moderate pace. The sensor insole data was validated against data form a three-dimensional motion capture system. The authors found the Moticon sensor insoles to provide accurate estimates for cadence, gait cycle time, stance time, and to a lesser extent also for swing time during slow and moderate-paced walking.

Contact Us
Book a free online demo or use the contact form to get in touch
Subscribe to our newsletter for regular updates

Select your desired system

The cutting edge test based outcome assessment system for health professionals and trainers

The most versatile toolkit for free data acquisition and comprehensive analytics in research

Have a general inquiry?

Write us a message for general questions about products and solutions or if you’d like to discuss other topics.

The form was sent successfully.

You will be contacted shortly.


Stay one step ahead!

Subscribe to our newsletter for the latest information on case studies, webinars, product updates and company news

Get support

Check our FAQ database for answers to frequently asked questions

Describe your issue in as much detail as possible. Include screenshots or files if applicable.

Need help?
Want a live demo?
Interested in prices?
Want to say hello?
Always just a call away
+49 89 2000 301 60