Gait & Posture

| 2016

Concurrent validity and reliability of wireless instrumented insoles measuring postural balance and temporal gait parameters

Background

The OpenGo seems promising to take gait analysis out of laboratory settings due to its capability of long-term measurements and mobility. However, the OpenGo’s concurrent validity and reliability need to be assessed to determine if the instrument is suitable for validation in patient samples.

Methods

Twenty healthy volunteers participated. Center of pressure data were collected under eyes open and closed conditions with participants performing unilateral stance trials on the gold standard (AMTI OR6-7 force plate) while wearing the OpenGo. Temporal gait data (stance time, gait cycle time, and cadence) were collected at a self-selected comfortable walking speed with participants performing testretest trials on an instrumented treadmill while wearing the OpenGo. Validity was assessed using BlandAltman plots. Reliability was assessed with Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (2,1) and smallest detectable changes were calculated.

Findings

Negative means of differences were found in all measured parameters, illustrating lower scores for the OpenGo on average. The OpenGo showed negative upper limits of agreement in center of pressure parameters on the mediolateral axis. Temporal reliability ICCs ranged from 0.90–0.93. Smallest detectable changes for both stance times were 0.04 (left) and 0.05 (right) seconds, for gait cycle time 0.08 s, and for cadence 4.5 steps per minute.

Interpretation

The OpenGo is valid and reliable for the measurement of temporal gait parameters during walking. Measurements of center of pressure parameters during unilateral stance are not considered valid. The OpenGo seems a promising instrument for clinically screening and monitoring temporal gait parameters in patients, however validation in patient populations is needed.

Keywords

Center of pressure, Spatiotemporal, Gait, Instrumented insoles

Author/s

Michiel S. Oerbekke, Mirelle J. Stukstette, Kurt Schütte, Rob A. de Biee, Martijn F. Pisters, Benedicte Vanwanseele

Institution / Department

Physical Therapy Research, Department of Rehabilitation, Nursing Science and Sport, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht

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Wireless Data Transmission


The wireless data transmission from OpenGo Sensor Insoles to the mobile device uses intelligent handshake technology to avoid the loss of data packages, even when the connection quality is below 100 %.

Typical wireless range of the Bluetooth Low Energy connection in indoor settings is ≥ 10 m, in in-field settings up to 20 m.

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