Interface Focus

| 2021

Consistent inconsistencies in braking: a spatial analysis

The dynamic system that is the bipedal body in motion is of interest to engineers, clinicians and biological anthropologists alike. Spatial statistics is more familiar to public health researchers as a way of analysing disease clustering and spread; nonetheless, this is a practical approach to the two-dimensional topography of the foot. We quantified the clustering of the centre of pressure (CoP) on the foot for peak braking and propulsive vertical ground reaction forces (GRFs) over multiple, contiguous steps to assess the consistency of the location of peak forces on the foot during walking. The vertical GRFs of 11 participants were collected continuously via a wireless insole system (MoticonReGo AG) across various experimental conditions. We hypothesized that CoPs would cluster in the hindfoot for braking and forefoot for propulsion, and that braking would demonstrate more consistent clustering than propulsion. Contrary to our hypotheses, we found that CoPs during braking are inconsistent in their location, and CoPs during propulsion are more consistent and clustered across all participants and all trials. These results add to our understanding of the applied forces on the foot so that we can better predict fatigue failures and better understand the mechanisms that shaped the modern bipedal form.


human movement, anthroengineering, spatial statistics, centre of pressure


Alexandra G. Hammerberg, Patricia Ann Kramer

Institution / Department

Primate Evolutionary Biomechanics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle

Need help?
Want a live demo?
Interested in prices?
Want to say hello?
Always just a call away
+49 89 2000 301 60

Wireless Data Transmission

The wireless data transmission from OpenGo Sensor Insoles to the mobile device uses intelligent handshake technology to avoid the loss of data packages, even when the connection quality is below 100 %.

Typical wireless range of the Bluetooth Low Energy connection in indoor settings is ≥ 10 m, in in-field settings up to 20 m.

Get support

Check our FAQ database for answers to frequently asked questions!

Describe your issue in as much detail as possible. Include screenshots or files if applicable.

A problem was detected in the following Form. Submitting it could result in errors. Please contact the site administrator.

Have a general inquiry?

Write us a message for general questions about products and solutions or if you’d like to discuss other topics.

Select your desired system


Cutting edge mobile gait assessments and sports movement tests for trainers and therapists


The most versatile toolkit for free data acquisition and comprehensive analytics in research

Select your desired system


The cutting edge test based outcome assessment system for health professionals and trainers


The most versatile toolkit for free data acquisition and comprehensive analytics in research

The form was sent successfully.

You will be contacted shortly.


Stay one step ahead!

Subscribe to our newsletter for the latest information on case studies, webinars, product updates and company news