European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery

Assessing lower extremity loading during activities of daily living using continuous-scale physical functional performance 10 and wireless sensor insoles: a comparative study between younger and older adults

Sonja Häckel, Tobias Kämpf, Heiner Baur, Arlene von Aesch, Reto Werner Kressig, Andreas Ernst Stuck & Johannes Dominik Bastian

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Inselspital, University of Bern, Switzerland


Weight-bearing, Lower extremity, Physical functional performance, wireless sensor insoles, old, yound adult


Purpose This study aims to investigate the lower extremity loading during activities of daily living (ADLs) using the Continuous Scale of Physical Functional Performance (CS-PFP 10) test and wireless sensor insoles in healthy volunteers. Methods In this study, 42 participants were recruited, consisting of 21 healthy older adults (mean age 69.6 ± 4.6 years) and 21 younger healthy adults (mean age 23.6 ± 1.8 years). The performance of the subjects during ADLs was assessed using the CS-PFP 10 test, which comprised 10 tasks. The lower extremity loading was measured using wireless sensor insoles (OpenGo, Moticon, Munich, Germany) during the CS-PFP 10 test, which enabled the measurement of ground reaction forces, including the mean and maximum total forces during the stance phase, expressed in units of body weight (BW). Results The total CS-PFP 10 score was significantly lower in older participants compared to the younger group (mean total score of 57.1 ± 9.0 compared to 78.2 ± 5.4, respectively). No significant differences in the mean total forces were found between older and young participants. The highest maximum total forces were observed during the tasks ‘endurance walk’ (young: 1.97 ± 0.34 BW, old: 1.70 ± 0.43 BW) and ‘climbing stairs’ (young: 1.65 ± 0.36 BW, old: 1.52 ± 0.28 BW). Only in the endurance walk, older participants showed a significantly higher maximum total force (p < 0.001). Conclusion The use of wireless sensor insoles in a laboratory setting can effectively measure the load on the lower extremities during ADLs. These findings could offer valuable insights for developing tailored recommendations for patients with partial weight-bearing restrictions.

Moticon's Summary

In this paper, the investigators used the CS-PFP 10 test for functional performance to monitor lower extremity loading during daily activities in different age groups. Moticon's OpenGo sensor insoles were employed to track lower limb loading during the tests by measuring ground reaction forces. The authors concluded that sensor insoles may effectively be used for measuring lower extremity loading during daily activities and could aid in the developement of tailored recomedations for partial weight bearing.

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