Complex Test
Gait Test
Jump Test
Run Test
Static Test

Free Distance Walk and Return

The test provides a measure for global response of musculoskeletal systems of the lower limbs as well as information regarding functional capacity and agility. Results entail the distance walked, the turning velocity and functional gait parameters.

Description

The Free Distance Walk and Return test is a sub-maximal walk test over a total distance of choice. It involves an individual walking straight forth on a flat track, pivoting around a turning mark, and returning to the start. Gait characteristics are assessed for the straigth walking only. The goal is to perform a normal walking, similar to real life conditions.

Test Preparation

  • Place 2 floor marks at chosen distance or use existing walkway
  • Wear comfortable clothing and shoes
  • Use usual walking aids if applicable (cane, walker, crutches, etc.)

Equipment

2x floor marks

Primary Outcome Parameter

Report ParameterUnitMotion TypeCategoryExplanation
Gait Line/1GaitCoordinationWidget showing travelling of the center of pressure (COP) during stance phases. Average of all complete steps.
Gait Line Length/1GaitCoordinationLength of the mean gait line, normalized by sensor insole length. Complete sensor insole length is 1. Typical values for normal gait patterns are <1 due to foot biomechanics while rolling over the ground, pressure sensors layout and edge effects of the shoe.
Gait Line Length L/R Difference%GaitCoordinationDifference between the left and the right length of the mean gait line, indicated in % difference. The % difference is calculated as (Length(R) – Length(L) / Length(L) in percent and relates to the difference compared to the left side. If the left gait line length is greater, values are negative. If the right gait line length is greater, values are positive.
Gait Line Width/1GaitCoordinationWidth of the mean gait line, normalized by sensor insole width. Complete sensor insole width is 1. Typical values for normal gait patterns are <1 due to foot biomechanics while rolling over the ground, pressure sensors layout and edge effects of the shoe.
Gait Line Width L/R Difference%GaitCoordinationDifference between the left and the right width of the mean gait line, indicated in % difference. If the left gait line width is greater, values are negative. If the right gait line width is greater, values are positive.

Secondary Outcome Parameters

Report ParameterUnitMotion TypeCategoryExplanation
StepsmGaitRange of MotionTotal number of full left and right steps.
DistancemGaitRange of MotionTotal distance walked.
Speedm/sGaitKinetics & AgilityAverage walking speed.
Time WalkedsGaitRange of MotionWalking time accomplished in the test.
Stride LengthmGaitRange of MotionDistance walked during one subsequent step of the left and the right foot each.
Strike Angle°GaitRange of MotionAngle of the foot related to the ground surface at the incident of striking the ground. Mean of all complete steps.
Strike Angle L/R Difference%GaitRange of MotionDifference between the left and the right mean strike angle, indicated in % difference. If the left strike angle is greater, values are negative. If the right strike angle is greater, values are positive.
Lift-Off Angle°GaitRange of MotionAngle of the foot related to the ground surface at the incident of lifting off the ground. Mean of all complete steps.
Lift-Off Angle L/R Difference%GaitRange of MotionDifference between the left and the right mean lift-off angle, indicated in % difference. If the left lift-off angle is greater, values are negative. If the right lift-off angle is greater, values are positive.
Peak Angular Velocity°/sGaitRange of MotionPeak angular velocity of the free foot when swinging forward, related to the rotation around the transversal axis. Measure for how quickly the foot turns in space referring to the ankle joint axis.
Peak Angular Velocity L/R Difference%GaitRange of MotionDifference between the left and the right peak angular velocity of the foot, indicated in % difference. If the left peak angular velocity is greater, values are negative. If the right peak angular velocity is greater, values are positive.
Cadence1/minGaitKinetics & AgilityNumber of complete single steps per minute. Average of all complete steps.
Stance Time%GaitKinetics & AgilityTime of left or right foot resting on the ground during stance phases, relative to the mean gait cycle time. Average of all complete steps.
Stance Time L/R Difference%GaitKinetics & AgilityDifference between the left and the right foot’s average stance times, indicated in % difference. If the left stance time is greater, values are negative. If the right stance time is greater, values are positive.
Double Support Time%GaitKinetics & AgilityTime during which both feet rest on the ground during stance phases, relative to the mean gait cycle time. Average of all complete steps.
Swing Time%GaitKinetics & AgilityTime of left or right foot in the air during swing phases, relative to the mean gait cycle time. Average of all complete steps. Swing phases last from final ground contact of previous step to next initial ground contact of the same foot.
Swing Time L/R Difference%GaitKinetics & AgilityDifference between the left and the right foot’s average swing times, indicated in % difference. If the left swing time is greater, values are negative. If the right swing time is greater, values are positive.
Forefoot Hindfoot Dominance/1GaitCoordinationPosition of the mean gait line in longitudinal direction, relative to the midfoot center and normalized by sensor insole length. Values < 0.5 indicate hindfoot dominance, values > 0.5 indicate a forefoot dominance.
Forefoot Hindfoot Dominance L/R Difference%GaitCoordinationDifference between the left and the right foot’s mean gait line position in longitudinal direction, indicated in % difference. If the left gait line position is more towards the forefoot, values are negative. If the right gait line position is more towards the forefoot, values are positive.
Medial Lateral Dominance/1GaitCoordinationPosition of the mean gait line in transversal direction, relative to the midfoot center and normalized by sensor insole width. Values > 0.5 indicate a medial dominance, values < 0.5 indicate a lateral dominance.
Medial Lateral Dominance L/R Difference%GaitCoordinationDifference between the left and the right foot’s mean gait line position in transversal direction, indicated in % difference. If the left gait line position is more medial (inner side), values are negative. If the right gait line position is more medial, values are positive.
Initial / Final Ground Contact Points/1GaitCoordinationWidget showing single points of first ground contacts and final ground contacts of the left and the right foot for all complete steps. Represents the center of pressure (COP) at a respective timepoint.
Longitudinal Initial Ground Contact Deviation/1GaitCoordinationLongitudinal standard deviation of the gait line start points. Indicates how the start points spread around the mean start point in anterior-posterior direction, normalized by sensor insole length.
Longitudinal Initial Ground Contact Deviation L/R Difference%GaitCoordinationDifference between the left and the right foot’s longitudinal standard deviations of the gait line starting points, indicated in % difference. If the left standard deviation is greater, values are negative. If the right standard deviation is greater, values are positive.
Transversal Initial Ground Contact Deviation/1GaitCoordinationTransversal standard deviation of the gait line start points. Indicates how the start points spread around the mean start point in medial-lateral direction, normalized by sensor insole length.
Transversal Initial Ground Contact Deviation L/R Difference%GaitCoordinationDifference between the left and the right foot’s transversal standard deviations of the gait line starting points, indicated in % difference. If the left standard deviation is greater, values are negative. If the right standard deviation is greater, values are positive.
Longitudinal Final Ground Contact Deviation/1GaitCoordinationLongitudinal standard deviation of the gait line end points. Indicates how the end points spread around the mean end point in anterior-posterior direction, normalized by sensor insole length.
Longitudinal Final Ground Contact Deviation L/R Difference%GaitCoordinationDifference between the left and the right foot’s longitudinal standard deviations of the gait line end points, indicated in % difference. If the left standard deviation is greater, values are negative. If the right standard deviation is greater, values are positive.
Transversal Final Ground Contact Deviation/1GaitCoordinationTransversal standard deviation of the gait line end points. Indicates how the end points spread around the mean end point in medial-lateral direction, normalized by sensor insole length.
Transversal Final Ground Contact Deviation L/R Difference%GaitCoordinationDifference between the left and the right foot’s transversal standard deviations of the gait line end points, indicated in % difference. If the left standard deviation is greater, values are negative. If the right standard deviation is greater, values are positive.
Gait Line Progression%GaitCoordinationTime based progress of the gait line over the entire ground contact phase, represented by discrete center of pressure (COP) points. Indicates how quickly the foot rolls over the ground. A shorter point-to-point distance relates to a quicker movement. Horizontal lines between left and right foot indicate equal COP progression speed. Average of all complete steps.
Gait Line Velocity1/sGaitCoordinationMean velocity of the center of pressure (COP) during stance phase. The faster the foot rolls off, the higher the gait line velocity.
Gait Line Velocity L/R Difference%GaitCoordinationDifference between the left and the right foot’s mean gait line velocity, indicated in % difference. If the left velocity is greater, values are negative. If the right velocity is greater, values are positive.
Gait Line Forefoot Velocity1/sGaitCoordinationMean velocity of the center of pressure (COP) when passing the forefoot area. Forefoot begins at 2/3 of sensor insole length.
Gait Line Forefoot Velocity L/R Difference%GaitCoordinationDifference between the left and the right foot’s mean gait line forefoot velocity, indicated in % difference. If the left velocity is greater, values are negative. If the right velocity is greater, values are positive.
Gait Line Midfoot Velocity1/sGaitCoordinationMean velocity of the center of pressure (COP) when passing the midfoot area. Midfoot begins at 1/3 of sensor insole length and ends at 2/3 of sensor insole length.
Gait Line Midfoot Velocity L/R Difference%GaitCoordinationDifference between the left and the right foot’s mean gait line midfoot velocity, indicated in % difference. If the left velocity is greater, values are negative. If the right velocity is greater, values are positive.
Gait Line Hindfoot Velocity1/sGaitCoordinationMean velocity of the center of pressure (COP) when passing the hindfoot area. Hindfoot begins at rearmost point and ends at 1/3 of sensor insole length.
Gait Line Hindfoot Velocity L/R Difference%GaitCoordinationDifference between the left and the right foot’s mean gait line hindfoot velocity, indicated in % difference. If the left velocity is greater, values are negative. If the right velocity is greater, values are positive.
Ground Reaction ForceN | %GaitKinetics & AgilityWidget showing vertical ground reaction force curve for stance phase, normalized by gait cycle duration (0-100%) between initial ground contact and final ground contact. Average of all complete steps.
Mean ForceNGaitKinetics & AgilityMean ground reaction force during stance phases. Average of all complete steps.
Mean Force L/R Difference%GaitKinetics & AgilityDifference between the left and the right foot’s average mean ground reaction force during stance phases, indicated in % difference. If the left force is greater, values are negative. If the right force is greater, values are positive.
Maximum ForceNGaitKinetics & AgilityMaximum ground reaction force during stance phases. Average of all complete steps.
Maximum Force L/R Difference%GaitKinetics & AgilityDifference between the left and the right foot’s average maximum ground reaction force during stance phases, indicated in % difference. If the left force is greater, values are negative. If the right force is greater, values are positive.
Load Intensitykg*hGaitKinetics & AgilitySum of all mean force values during stance phase as a measure for load intensity. Average of all complete steps.
Load Intensity L/R Difference%GaitKinetics & AgilityDifference between the left and the right foot’s average load intensity during stance phases, indicated in % difference. If the left load intensity is greater, values are negative. If the right load intensity is greater, values are positive.
Force RisingsGaitKinetics & AgilityTime to first peak of the mean force curve after initial contact. Average of all complete steps. Greater values for Force Rising typically indicate faster walking or running as the rising slope is steeper, but may also indicate a more blunt touch down of the foot.
Force Rising L/R Difference%GaitKinetics & AgilityDifference between the left and the right foot’s average time to first peak of mean force curve after initial contact, indicated in % difference. If the left time is greater, values are negative. If the right time is greater, values are positive.
Takeoff DynamicsGaitKinetics & AgilitySecond force peak during terminal stance phase related to the force minimum in stance phase. Average of all complete steps. Indicates the intensity of pushing the foot off the ground. Greater values indicate more powerful push-off.
Takeoff Dynamics L/R Difference%GaitKinetics & AgilityDifference between the left and the right foot’s average ratio between the second force peak during terminal stance phase and force minimum during stance phase, indicated in % difference. If the left ratio is greater, values are negative. If the right ratio is greater, values are positive.
Load Histogram% | kgGaitKinetics & AgilityWidget indicates how often a certain foot load occured during all complete stance phases.
Load Distribution%GaitKinetics & AgilityPercentage of accumulated foot loads during stance phase, related to 6 foot segments: medial hindfoot, lateral hindfoot, medial midfoot, lateral midfoot, medial forefoot, lateral forefoot. Includes all complete steps.
Mean Pressure DistributionN/cm²GaitKinetics & AgilityHeat map widget showing mean pressure for each of the pressure sensors during stance phase. Average of all complete steps.
Anterior Posterior Accelerationg | %GaitKinetics & AgilityWidget showing acceleration of foot in direction of walking (anterior posterior direction) during complete gait cycle. Average of all complete steps.
Foot Dynamics Walk DirectiongGaitKinetics & AgilityAmplitude of foot acceleration in direction of walking. Average of all complete steps. Greater values indicate a quicker acceleration and deceleration of the foot when moving forward for the next step.
Foot Dynamics Walk Direction L/R Difference%GaitKinetics & AgilityDifference between the left and the right foot’s average acceleration amplitude in walking direction, indicated in % difference. If the left acceleration amplitude is greater, values are negative. If the right acceleration amplitude is greater, values are positive.
Not Walked Straight LineGaitCompliance
Running MovementsGaitCompliance
FatigueAllSelf-Reported OutcomeIndicates self reported fatigue level: nothing at all (0), very slight (1), slight (2), moderate (3), somewhat severe (4), severe (5), severe (6) very severe (7-9), very very severe (10).
PainAllSelf-Reported OutcomeIndicates self reported pain level: no pain (0), mild pain (1-3), moderate pain (4-6), severe pain (7-9), very severe pain (10).
Walking Aid UsedCustomSelf-Reported OutcomeIndicates if a walking aid was used for the test.
Walking Aid TypeCustomSelf-Reported OutcomeSelect a walking aid used for the test: none, cane, four-point walker, rolling walker (such as U-step), stabilization of one arm by assistant.
CommentCustomSelf-Reported OutcomeContains free comments for a particular test or test report.
Applicable Type
Sport
Trauma
Neuro
Arthroplasty
Contraindication

Pain in the lower limbs

Unable to walk without stumbling

Test Procedure

1

Prepare
  • Stand straight
  • Feet are shoulder width apart next to one floor mark

2

Countdown
  • Hold your standing position over the countdown
  • Start walking on START

3

Walk Forth
  • Walk straight towards the turning mark
  • Walk at your normal speed without stumbling
  • Do not run

4

Turning Mark
  • Pivot around the turning mark
  • Continue back without hesitation

5

Stright Walkline
  • Make sure you stay on track for walking forth and back straight

6

Walk Back
  • Walk back towards the start mark
  • Walk as fast as possible without stumbling
  • Do not run

7

Start Mark & Stop
  • Approach the start mark and stop

8

Coutndown
  • Stand still
  • Listen to the countdown while standing
  • The test is completed on STOP

9

Additional
  • Enter if assistive devices were used
  • Enter your fatigue and pain level
  • Enter free comments, if applicable

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