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| 2022

Validity and Reliability of the Insole3 Instrumented Shoe Insole for Ground Reaction Force Measurement during Walking and Running

Leora A. Cramer, Markus A. Wimmer, Philip Malloy, Joan A. O’Keefe, Christopher B. Knowlton, Christopher Ferrigno

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago


gait mechanics, pressure insole, ground reaction force, validation, reliability


Pressure-detecting insoles such as the Insole3 have potential as a portable alternative for assessing vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) outside of specialized laboratories. This study evaluated whether the Insole3 is a valid and reliable alternative to force plates for measuring vGRF. Eleven healthy participants walked overground at slow and moderately paced speeds and ran at a moderate pace while collecting vGRF simultaneously from a force plate (3000 Hz) and Insole3 (100 Hz). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) demonstrated excellent vGRF agreement between systems during both walking speeds for Peak 1, Peak 2, the valley between peaks, and the vGRF impulse (ICC > 0.941). There was excellent agreement during running for the single vGRF peak (ICC = 0.942) and impulse (ICC = 0.940). The insoles slightly underestimated vGRF peaks (−3.7% to 0.9% bias) and valleys (−2.2% to −1.8% bias), and slightly overestimated impulses (4.2% to 5.6% bias). Reliability between visits for all three activities was excellent (ICC > 0.970). The Insole3 is a valid and reliable alternative to traditional force plates for assessing vGRF during walking and running in healthy adults. The excellent ICC values during slow walking suggests that the Insole3 may be particularly suitable for older adults in clinical and home settings.

Moticon's Summary

In this study the authors performed a validation of vertical ground reaction force measurements by Moticon's OpenGo sensor insoles. The sensor insoles were validated against a force plate. Eleven participants performed two types of overground walks as well as a run at moderate pace. For walking of both types agreement was excellent in terms of resulting interclass correlations for Peak 1, Peak 2, valley between peaks and vertical ground reaction force impulse. For running interclass correlation coefficients implied excellent agreement concerning the single vertical ground reaction force peak and impulse. The authors concluded that Moticon's OpenGo sensor insoles provide a valid and reliable alternative to regular force plates.

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