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| 2022

Validity and Reliability of the Insole3 Instrumented Shoe Insole for Ground Reaction Force Measurement during Walking and Running

Pressure-detecting insoles such as the Insole3 have potential as a portable alternative for assessing vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) outside of specialized laboratories. This study evaluated whether the Insole3 is a valid and reliable alternative to force plates for measuring vGRF. Eleven healthy participants walked overground at slow and moderately paced speeds and ran at a moderate pace while collecting vGRF simultaneously from a force plate (3000 Hz) and Insole3 (100 Hz). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) demonstrated excellent vGRF agreement between systems during both walking speeds for Peak 1, Peak 2, the valley between peaks, and the vGRF impulse (ICC > 0.941). There was excellent agreement during running for the single vGRF peak (ICC = 0.942) and impulse (ICC = 0.940). The insoles slightly underestimated vGRF peaks (−3.7% to 0.9% bias) and valleys (−2.2% to −1.8% bias), and slightly overestimated impulses (4.2% to 5.6% bias). Reliability between visits for all three activities was excellent (ICC > 0.970). The Insole3 is a valid and reliable alternative to traditional force plates for assessing vGRF during walking and running in healthy adults. The excellent ICC values during slow walking suggests that the Insole3 may be particularly suitable for older adults in clinical and home settings.


gait mechanics, pressure insole, ground reaction force, validation, reliability


Leora A. Cramer, Markus A. Wimmer, Philip Malloy, Joan A. O’Keefe, Christopher B. Knowlton, Christopher Ferrigno

Institution / Department

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago

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